93. Deravi LF, Sinatra NR, Chantre CO, Nesmith AP, Yuan H, Deravi SK, Goss JA, MacQueen LA, Badrossamy MR, Gonzalez GM, Phillips MD, Parker KK. Design and fabrication of fibrous nanomaterials using pull spinning. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. 17 January 2017. DOI: 10.1002/mame.201600404. [Epub ahead of print].
92. Dauth S, Maoz BM, Sheehy SP, Hemphill MA, Murty T, Macedonia MK, Greer AM, Budnik B, Parker KK. Neurons derived from different brain regions are inherently different in vitro: A novel multiregional brain-on-a-chip. Journal of Neurophysiology. 28 December 2016. doi: 10.1152/jn.00575.2016. [Epub ahead of print].
91. Benam KH, Novak R, Nawroth J, Hirano-Kobayashi M, Ferrante TC, Choe Y, Prantil-Baun R, Weaver JC, Bahinski A, Parker KK, Ingber DE. Matched-Comparative Modeling of Normal and Diseased Human Airway Responses Using a Microengineered Breathing Lung Chip. Cell Systems. 27 October 2016. doi:10.1016/j.cels.2016.10.003 [Epub ahead of print].
90. Lind JU, Busbee TA, Valentine AD, Pasqualini FS, Yuan H, Yadid M, Park SJ, Kotikian A, Nesmith AP, Campbell PH, Vlassak JJ, Lewis JA, Parker KK. Instrumented cardiac microphysiological devices via multimaterial three-dimensional printing. Nature Materials. 24 October 2016; doi: 10.1038/nmat4782.
89. Gonzalez GM, MacQueen LA, Lind JU, Fitzgibbons SA, Chantre CO, Huggler I, Golecki HM, Goss JA, Parker KK. Production of synthetic, para-aramid and biopolymer nanofibers by immersion rotary jet-spinning. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. 7 October 2016; doi: 10.1002/mame.201600365 [Epub ahead of print].
88. Pasqualini FS, Emmert MY, Parker KK, Hoerstrup SP. Organ Chips: Quality Assurance Systems in Regenerative Medicine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Oct 6. doi: 10.1002/cpt.527. [Epub ahead of print]
87. Nesmith, AP, Wagner MA, Pasqualini FS, O’Connor BB, Pincus MJ, August PR, Parker KK. A human in vitro model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscle formation and contractility. The Journal of Cell Biology. 3 October 2016; doi: 10.1083/jcb.201603111.
86. Chal J, Tanoury ZA, Hestin M, Gobert B, Aivio S,Hick A,Cherrier T, Nesmith AP, Parker KK, Pourquié O. Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Nature Protocols. 1 September 2016; doi:10.1038/nprot.2016.110
85. Park SJ, Gazzola M, Park KS, Park S, DiSanto V, Blevins EL, Lind JU, Campbell PH, Dauth S, Capulli AK, Pasqualini FS, Ahn S, Cho A, Yuan H, Maoz BM, Vijaykumar R, Choi JW, Deisseroth K, Lauder GV, Mahadevan L, Parker KK. Phototactic guidance of a tissue-engineered soft-robotic ray. Science. 2016 July 8; doi: 10.1126/science.aaf4292
84. Pope BD, Warren CR, Parker KK, Cowan, CA. Microenvironmental control of adipocyte fate and function. Trends in Cell Biology. 2016 June 5; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2016.05.005 [Epub ahead of print]
83. Kujala VJ, Pasqualini FS, Goss JA, Nawroth JC, Parker KK. Laminar ventricular myocardium on a microelectrode array-based chip. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 13 April 2016; doi: 10.1039/C6TB00324A.
82. Capulli AK, MacQueen LA, O’Connor BB, Dauth S, Parker KK. Acute pergolide exposure stiffens engineered valve interstitial cell tissues and reduced contractility in vitro. Cardiovascular Pathology. 2016 Apr 25; 25(4):316-324. doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2016.04.004. [Epub ahead of print]
81. Capulli AK, MacQueen LA, Sheehy SP, Parker KK. Fibrous scaffolds for building hearts and heart parts. Adv. drug delivery reviews. 2016 Jan 15. 96, 83-102. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2015.11.020
80. Aratyn-Schaus Y, Pasqualini FS, Yuan H, McCain ML, Ye GJ, Sheehy SP, Campbell PH, Parker KK. Coupling primary and stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in an in vitro model of cardiac cell therapy. J Cell Biol. 2016 Feb 8. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201508026
79. Dauth S, Grevesse T, Pantazopoulos H, Campbell PH, Maoz, BM, Berretta S and Parker KK. Extracellular matrix protein expression is brain region dependent. J Comp Neurol. 2016 Jan 18. doi: 10.1002/cne.23965. [Epub ahead of print]
78. Horton RE, Yadid M, McCain, ML, Sheehy SP, Pasqualini FS, Park SJ, Cho A, Campbell P, Parker KK. Angiotensin II Induced Cardiac Dysfunction on a Chip. PLos ONE. 2016; 1(1): e0146415. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146415
77. Maia PD, Hemphill MA, Zehnder B, Zhang C, Parker KK, Kutz JN. Diagnostic tools for evaluating the impact of Focal Axonal Swellings arising in neurodegenerative diseases and/or traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci Methods. 2015 Sept 30;253:233-243. Epub 2015 Jul 16.
76. Ahn S, Deravi LF, Park SJ, Dabiri BE, Kim JS, Parker KK, Shin K. Self-organizing large-scale extracellular-matrix protein networks. Adv Mater. 2015 May 13;27(18):2838-45. Epub 2015 Mar 31.
75. Lee H, Adams WJ, Alford PW, McCain ML, Feinberg AW, Sheehy SP, Goss JA, Parker KK. Cytoskeletal prestress regulates nuclear shape and stiffness in cardiac myocytes. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2015 Nov; 240(11):1543-54. Epub 2015 Apr 23.
74. Drew NK, Eagleson MA, Baldo DB Jr, Parker KK, Grosberg A. Metrics for assessing cytoskeletal orientational correlations and consistency. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015 Apr 7;11(4).
73. Grevesse T, Dabiri BE, Parker KK, Gabriele S. Opposite rheological properties of neuronal microcompartments predict axonal vulnerability in brain injury. Sci Rep. 2015 Mar 30;5:9475.
72. Hemphill MA, Dauth S, Yu CJ, Dabiri BE, Parker KK. Traumatic Brain Injury and the Neuronal Microenvironment: A Potential Role for Neuropathological Mechanotransduction. Neuron. 2015 Mar 18;85(6):1177-1192.
71. Pasqualini FS, Sheehy SP, Agarwal A, Aratyn-Schaus Y, Parker KK. Structural Phenotyping of Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes. Stem Cell Reports. 2015 Mar 10;4(3):340-7.
70. Benam KH, Dauth S, Hassell B, Herland A, Jain A, Jang KJ, Karalis K, Kim HJ, MacQueen L, Mahmoodian R, Musah S, Torisawa YS, van der Meer AD, Villenave R, Yadid M, Parker KK, Ingber DE. Engineered in vitro disease models. Annu Rev Pathol. 2015;10:195-262.
69. Golecki HM, Yuan H, Glavin C, Potter B, Badrossamay MR, Goss JA, Phillips MD, Parker KK. Effect of solvent evaporation on fiber morphology in rotary jet spinning. Langmuir. 2014 Nov 11;30(44):13369-74.
68. Ye GJ, Nesmith AP, Parker KK.The role of mechanotransduction on vascular smooth muscle myocytes cytoskeleton and contractile function. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2014 Sep;297(9):1758-69.
67. Nesmith AP, Agarwal A, McCain ML, Parker KK. Human airway musculature on a chip: an in vitro model of allergic asthmatic bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation. Lab Chip, 2014, 14, 3925-3936.
66. Capulli AK, Tian K, Mehandru N, Bukhta A,, Choudhury SF, Suchyta M and Parker KK. Approaching the in vitro clinical trial: engineering organs on chips. Lab Chip, Nat Med. 2014 Jun;20(6):616-23.
65. Wang G, McCain ML, Yang L, He A, Pasqualini FS, Agarwal A, Yuan H, Jiang D, Zhang D, Zangi L, Geva J, Roberts AE, Ma Q, Ding J, Chen J, Wang DZ, Li K, Wang J, Wanders RJ, Kulik W, Vaz FM, Laflamme MA, Murry CE, Chien KR, Kelley RI, Church GM, Parker KK, Pu WT. Modeling the mitochondrial cardiomyopathy of Barth syndrome with induced pluripotent stem cell and heart-on-chip technologies. Nat Med. 2014 Jun;20(6):616-23.
64. McCain ML, Yuan H, Pasqualini FS, Campbell PH, Parker KK. Matrix elasticity regulates the optimal cardiac myocyte shape for contractility. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. Jun 2014,306(11)H1525-H1539. Epub 2014 Mar 28.
63. McCain ML, Agarwal A, Nesmith HW, Nesmith AP, Parker KK. Micromolded gelatin hydrogels for extended culture of engineered cardiac tissues Biomaterials. 2014 Jul;35(21):5462-71. Epub 2014 Apr 14.
62. Sheehy SP, Pasqualini F, Grosberg A, Park SJ, Yvonne Aratyn-Schaus Y, Parker KK. Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes. Stem Cell Reports. 2014 Mar;2(3):282-294.
61. Badrossamay MR, Balachandran K, Capulli AK, Golecki HM, Agarwal A, Goss JA, Kim H, Shin K, Parker KK. Engineering hybrid polymer-protein super-aligned nanofibers via rotary jet spinning. Biomaterials. 2014 Mar;35(10):3188-97.
60. Mosadegh B, Dabiri BE, Lockett MR, Derda R, Campbell P, Parker KK and Whitesides GM. Three-Dimensional Paper-Based Model for Cardiac Ischemia. Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2014; (3) 2
59. Deravi LF, Magyar AP, Sheehy SP, Bell GRR, Mäthger LM, Senfta SL, Wardill TJ, Lane WS, Kuzirian AM, Hanlon RT, Hu EL, and Parker KK. The structure–function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores. J. R. Soc. Interface 11: 20130942.
58. Ye GJC, Aratyn-Schaus Y, Nesmith AP, Pasqualini FS, Alford, PW, and Parker KK. The contractile strength of vascular smooth muscle myocytes is shape dependent. Integr. Biol., 2014; 6: 152-163
57. Deravi LF, Golecki HM, and Parker KK. Protein-Based Textiles: Bio-Inspired and Bio-Derived Materials for Medical and Non-Medical Applications. J. Chem. Biol. Interfaces. 2013; 1(1): 25-34
56. Agarwal A, Goss JA, Cho A, McCain ML and Parker KK. Microfluidic heart on a chip for higher throughput pharmacological studies. Lab on a Chip. 2013; 13(18): 3599–608
55. McCain ML, Sheehy SP, Grosberg A, Goss JA, and Parker KK.
Recapitulating maladaptive, multiscale remodeling of failing myocardium on a chip. PNAS. 2013; 110: 9770-9775.
54. Agarwal A, Farouz Y, Nesmith AP, Deravi LF, McCain ML, Parker KK. Micropatterning Alginate Substrates for In Vitro Cardiovascular Muscle on a Chip.. Adv. Funct. Mater. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2013; 23(30): 3738–46.
53. Nawroth JC, Parker KK. Design standards for engineered tissues. Biotechnol Adv. 2013 Sep-Oct;31(5):632-7. Epub 2012 Dec 23.
52. Kuo P, Lee H, Bray MA, Geisse NA, Huang YT, Adams WJ, Sheehy SP, Parker KK. Myocyte shape regulates lateral registry of sarcomeres and contractility. Am. J. Pathol. 2012; 181(6):2030-7.
51. Deravi LF, Su T, Paten JA, Ruberti, JW, Bertoldi K, Parker KK. Differential Contributions of Conformation Extension and Domain Unfolding to Properties of Fibronectin Nanotexiles. Nano Letters. 2012; 12 (11):5587–5592.
50. Nawroth JC, Lee H, Feinberg AW, Ripplinger CM, McCain ML, Grosberg A, Dabiri JO, Parker KK. A tissue-engineered jellyfish with biomimetic propulsion. Nat Biotechnol. 2012;30;792-797.
49. Dabiri BE, Lee H, Parker KK. A potential role for integrin signaling in mechanoelectrical feedback. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2012; 110: 196–203.
48. Sheehy SP, Grosberg A, Parker KK. The contribution of cellular mechanotransduction to cardiomyocyte form and function. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012; 11: 1227-1239.
47. McCain ML, Lee H, Aratyn-Schaus Y, Kléber AG, Parker KK. Cooperative coupling of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions in cardiac muscle. PNAS. 2012;109:9881-9886.
46. Feinberg AW, Alford PW, Jin H, Ripplinger CM, Werdich AA, Sheehy SP, Grosberg A, Parker KK. Controlling the contractile strength of engineered cardiac muscle by hierarchal tissue architecture. Biomaterials. 2012;33:5732-5741.
45. Beauchamp P, Desplantez T, McCain ML, Li W, Asimaki A, Rigoli G, Parker KK, Saffitz JE, Kleber AG. Electrical Coupling and Propagation in Engineered Ventricular Myocardium With Heterogeneous Expression of Connexin43. Circ Res. 2012;110:1445-1453.
44. Grosberg A, Nesmith AP, Goss JA, Brigham MD, McCain ML, Parker KK. Muscle on a chip: In vitro contractility assays for smooth and striated muscle. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2012;65:126-135.
43. Desplantez T, McCain ML, Beauchamp P, Rigoli G, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Parker KK, Kleber AG. Connexin43 ablation in foetal atrial myocytes decreases electrical coupling, partner connexins, and sodium current. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:58-65.
42. Shim J, Grosberg A, Nawroth JC, Parker KK, Bertoldi K. Modeling of cardiac muscle thin films: Pre-stretch, passive and active behavior. J. Biomech. 2012;45:832-841.
41. Sheehy SP, Parker KK. The Role of Mechanical Forces in Guiding Tissue Differentiation. In: Bernstein H, editor. Tissue Engineering in Regenerative Medicine. Springer; 2011:77-97.
40. Balachandran K, Alford PW, Wylie-Sears J, Goss JA, Grosberg A, Bischoff J, Aikawa E, Levine RA, Parker KK. Cyclic strain induces dual-mode endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the cardiac valve. PNAS. 2011;108:19943-19948.
39. McCain ML, Desplantez T, Geisse NA, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Oberer H, Parker KK, Kleber AG. Cell-to-cell coupling in engineered pairs of rat ventricular cardiomyocytes: relation between Cx43 immunofluorescence and intercellular electrical conductance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;302:H443-H450.
38. Mellado P, McIlwee HA, Badrossamay MR, Goss JA, Mahadevan L, Parker KK. A simple model for nanofiber formation by rotary jet-spinning. Appl Phys Lett. 2011;99:203107.
37. Grosberg A, Alford PW, McCain ML, Parker KK. Ensembles of engineered cardiac tissues for physiological and pharmacological study: Heart on a chip. Lab Chip. 2011;11(24):4165-4173.
36. Alford PW, Nesmith AP, Seywerd, JN, Grosberg A, Parker KK. Vascular smooth muscle contractility depends on cell shape. Integr. Biol. 2011;3(11):1063-1070.
35. Dvir T, Timko BP, Brigham MD, Naik SR, Karajanagi SS, Levy O, Jin H, Parker KK, Langer R, Kohane DS. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches. Nat Nanotechnol. 2011;6:720-725.
34. Hemphill MA, Dabiri BE, Gabriele S, Kerscher L, Franck C, Goss JA, Alford PW, Parker KK. A possible role for integrin signaling in diffuse axonal injury. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22899.
33. Alford PW, Dabiri BE, Goss JA, Hemphill MA, Brigham MD, Parker KK. Blast-induced phenotypic switching in cerebral vasospasm. PNAS. 2011;108:12705-12710
32. McCain ML, Parker KK. Mechanotransduction: the role of mechanical stress, myocyte shape, and cytoskeletal architecture on cardiac function. Pflugers Arch – Eur J Physiol. 2011;462:89–104.
31. Grosberg A, Kuo P-L, Guo C-L, Geisse NA, Bray M-A, Adams WJ, Sheehy SP, Parker KK. Self-organization of muscle cell structure and function. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1001088.
30. Pong T, Adams WJ, Bray MA, Feinberg AW, Sheehy SP, Werdich AA, Parker KK. Hierarchical architecture influences calcium dynamics in engineered cardiac muscle. Exp Biol Med. 2011;236:366-373
29. Vandeparre H, Gabriele S, Brau F, Gay C, Parker KK, Damman P. Hierarchical wrinkling patterns. Soft Matter. 2010;6:5751-5756.
28. Bray MA, Adams WJ, Geisse NA, Feinberg AW, Sheehy SP, Parker KK. Nuclear morphology and deformation in engineered cardiac myocytes and tissues. Biomaterials. 2010;31:5143-5150.
27. Badrossamay MR, McIlwee HA, Goss JA, Parker KK. Nanofiber assembly by rotary jet spinning. Nanoletters. 2010;10:2257-2261.
26. Feinberg AW, Parker KK. Surface-initiated assembly of protein nanofabrics. Nanoletters. 2010;10:2184-2191.
25. Göktepe S, Abilez OJ, Parker KK, Kuhl E. A multiscale model for eccentric and concentric cardiac growth through sarcomerogenesis. J Theor Biol. 2010;265:433-442.
24. Alford PW, Feinberg AW, Sheehy SP, Parker KK. Biohybrid thin films for measuring contractility in engineered cardiovascular muscle. Biomaterials. 2010;31:3613-3621.
23. O’Grady M, Kuo P, Parker KK. Optimization of electroactive hydrogel actuators. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2010;2:343-346.
22. Domian IJ, Chiravuri M, van der Meer P, Feinberg AW, Shi X, Shao Y, Wu SM, Parker KK, Chien KR. Generation of functional ventricular heart muscle from mouse ventricular progenitor Cells. Science. 2009;326(5951):426-429. [video download, 1.6 MB]
21. Geisse NA, Sheehy SP, Parker KK.Control of myocyte remodeling in vitro with engineered substrates. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2009;45:343-350.
20. Sheehy SP, Huang S, Parker KK. Time-warped comparison of gene expression in adaptive and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:116-124.
19. Bol M, Reese S, Parker KK, Kuhl K. Computational modeling of muscular thin films for cardiac repair. Computational Mechanics. 2009;43:535-544.
18. Chien KR, Domain IJ, Parker KK. Cardiogenesis and the complex biology of regenerative cardiovascular medicine. Science. 2008;322:1494-1497. Review.
17. Parker KK, Tan J, Chen CS, Tung L. Myofibrillar architecture in engineered cardiac myocytes. Circ Res. 2008;103:340-342.
16. Bray MA, Sheehy SP, Parker KK. Sarcomere alignment is regulated by myocyte shape. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:641-651.
15. Geisse NA, Feinberg AW, Kuo P, Sheehy S, Bray MA, Parker KK. Micropatterning Approaches for Cardiac Biology. In: Khademhosseini A, Toner M, Borenstein JT, Takayama S, editors. Micro- and Nanoengineering of the Cell Microenvironment: Technologies and Applications. Boston: Artech House; 2008:341-357.
14. O’Grady ML, Parker KK. Dynamic control of protein-protein interactions. Langmuir. 2008;24:316-322.
13. Feinberg AW, Feigel A, Shevkoplyas SS, Sheehy S, Whitesides GM, Parker KK. Muscular thin films for building actuators and powering devices. Science. 2007;317:1366-1370. [video download, 11 MB]
12. Parker KK, Ingber DE. Extracellular matrix, mechanotransduction and structural hierarchies in heart tissue engineering. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007;362:1267-1279.
11. Bray MA, Geisse NA, Parker KK. Multidimensional detection and analysis of Ca2+ sparks in cardiac myocytes. Biophys J. 2007;92:4433-4443. [source code / test data]
10. Adams WJ, Pong T, Geisse NA, Sheehy S, Parker KK. Engineering design of a cardiac myocyte. J Computer-Aided Materials Design. 2007;14:19-29.
9. Brangwynne CP, MacKintosh FC, Kumar S, Geisse NA, Talbot J, Mahadevan L, Parker KK, Ingber DE, Weitz DA. Microtubules can bear enhanced compressive loads in living cells because of lateral reinforcement. J Cell Bio. 2006;173:733-741.
8. Huang S, Brangwynne CP, Parker KK, Ingber DE. Symmetry-breaking in mammalian cell cohort migration during tissue pattern formation: role of random-walk persistence. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2005;61:201-213.
7. Parker KK, Lavelle JA, Taylor LK, Wang Z, Hansen DE. Stretch-induced ventricular arrhythmias during acute ischemia and reperfusion. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97:377-383.
6. Latimer DC, Roth BJ, Parker KK. Analytical model for predicting mechanotransduction effects in engineered cardiac tissue. Tissue Eng. 2003;9:283-289.
5. Bursac N, Parker KK, Iravanian S, Tung L. Cardiomyocyte cultures with controlled macroscopic anisotropy: a model for functional electrophysiological studies of cardiac muscle. Circ Res. 2002;91:e45-e54.
4. Parker KK, Brock AL, Brangwynne C, Mannix RJ, Wang N, Ostuni E, Geisse NA, Adams JC, Whitesides GM, Ingber DE. Directional control of lamellipodia extension by constraining cell shape and orienting cell tractional forces. FASEB J. 2002;16:1195-1204.
3. Parker KK, Taylor LK, Atkinson JB, Hansen DE, Wikswo JP. The effects of tubulin-binding agents on stretch-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Euro J Pharm. 2001;417:131-140.
2. Brangwynne C, Huang S, Parker KK, Ingber DE, Ostuni E. Symmetry breaking in cultured mammalian cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Bio. 2001;36:563-565.
1. Parker KK, Wikswo JP Jr. A model of the magnetic fields created by single motor unit compound action potentials in skeletal muscle. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1997;44:948-957.
Congratulations Grant Gonzalez and Michael Rosnach on the cover of Macromolecular Materials and Engineering! January 23rd, 2017
Parker Lab Artist Michael Rosnach’s illustration accompanying PhD Student Grant Gonzalez’s paper “Production of synthetic, para-aramid and biopolymer nanofibers by immersion rotary jet-spinning” was chosen for the January 2017 cover of Macromolecular Materials and Engineering.
“Utilizing a precipitant vortex, a novel nanofiber platform produces Kevlar, nylon, DNA, and alginate nanofibers for high-performance composites and tissue engineering applications.”
Congratulations to Ian Perkins & Alex Cho! January 5th, 2017
The DBG would like to congratulate Ian Perkins and Alex Cho who both graduated from Northeastern University in December. Ian received his B.S. in Mechanical Engineering and Alex his B.S. in Biology. We would like to thank you both for your significant contributions to the DBG over the past several years, and we are grateful that you are both continuing with us in the lab this semester!
Congratulations Dr. Capulli! December 15th, 2016
Congratulations to Dr. Andrew Capulli who successfully defended his dissertation in December, and will continue in the DBG as a Postdoctoral Fellow.
Congratulations Dr. Nesmith! December 15th, 2016
Congratulations to Dr. Peyton Nesmith who successfully defended his dissertation last month. We wish him the best of luck as he returns to the University of Alabama to complete his M.D.